Asphalt shingles have been used successfully in cold climates for over one hundred years.
Improved application efficiency, and more importantly, enhanced long-term shingle
performance, can be achieved by following the cold weather application recommendations
outlined below:
• Be sure to follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions carefully, as most building
codes require, including manufacturer recommendations about cold temperature
application and proper storage and handling of accessory components used in the
installation of an asphalt shingle roofing system.
• Be very careful when working on sloped roofs. In winter applications, there may be
nearly invisible ice or frost build-up on the roof or deck surface, which can make work
extremely hazardous. It is advisable to wait until the roof surface is free of ice and frost
for safer shingle roof application.
• Use caution when handling bundles of shingles and individual shingles in cold weather
as they may crack, or in severe cases, break apart. Choose an installation temperature
where the shingles are sufficiently flexible to facilitate installation. As with most
materials, asphalt shingles tend to become less flexible as temperature decreases. Refer
to manufacturer instructions for specific directions related to cold weather installation
temperature. Note that when cold, shingle bundles will tend to keep the shape of the
surface upon which they are stacked. When nailing, make sure the shingles are flat;
otherwise, the nail may break through the shingle surface during installation. Avoid
bending, throwing, or dropping bundles of shingles in cold weather. For best results,
store shingles indoors to keep them warm prior to application.
• Use extra care (including warming of shingles) in applications where lifting or bending
the shingle is required, such as racking applications, hip and ridge shingles, or at valleys.
Lifting or bending may cause the shingles to crack or break during or after installation.
• Most asphalt shingles include thermally activated asphalt sealant, which bonds the
shingles together after they are applied to the roof. Sealing time will vary depending on
the slope of the roof, its orientation, and the amount of sun/heat exposure that the
shingles receive. To provide improved protection from wind blow-off in very cold
weather, asphalt shingles can be hand-sealed with an approved asphalt roofing cement
or other adhesive acceptable to the shingle manufacturer and in accordance with their installation requirements.
• Consider the use of open metal valleys in cold weather. Woven and closed cut valleys
require shingles to be bent, which may result in shingle damage.
Additional Considerations
• When re-roofing over an existing roof in cold weather, take extra care to ensure that the
roof surface is smooth and flat. If shingles are affixed to an uneven surface in cold
weather, that uneven appearance may be “locked in.” Even with the return to warmer
weather, the shingles may not be able to completely relax to a smooth looking finished
• Ensure that the attic space is adequately ventilated.1
• Install polymer modified, self-adhering underlayment as ice dam protection in regions
susceptible to ice damming. Self-adhering underlayment provide protection against
damage from water backup from ice dams that can occur at the eaves of the roof.2

Asphalt saturated felt may be used as an alternative ice dam protection when applied
per the manufacturer’s application instructions and the requirements of the building
• If roof maintenance or inspection is required in cold weather, take special care when
walking on shingles. Shingles applied to an uneven surface, or that are slightly curved or
buckled, are very susceptible to breakage underfoot in frigid weather. For some
sealants, the bond between courses becomes less flexible in cold weather and roof
traffic may break the sealant bond. In such cases, it may be necessary to hand-seal these
Certain North American regions receive very high snowfall amounts, requiring snow and ice
removal from the roof. Extreme caution must be taken when removing snow from the roof so
that the shingles are not damaged by shovels, scrapers, or foot traffic.

Built-Up Roofing (BUR) membranes have been in use in North America for more than 100 years. BUR systems
predominately consist of alternating layers of asphalt (bitumen) and fiberglass ply felts that create a very durable
water resistant membrane. The number of plies within a cross section of the system will denote the type of system.
“Three or four plies with a flood coat of asphalt and gravel” is a common phrase used to describe a BUR system.
Built-Up Roofing Asphalt (BURA) is manufactured to meet various technical specifications. In the United States, BURA
should meet the current version of ASTM D312, and in Canada, the current CSA 123.4 standard. The asphalt
producer should provide certification of the asphalt provided upon request. ASTM D312 defines four types of roofing
BURA (Types I, II, III, and IV); considerations affecting the proper type of asphalt for a particular job include roof
slope, environmental conditions, local roofing codes and practices, and the type of construction on which the roof
membrane will be applied. Consult the roofing manufacturer and/or specifier regarding proper asphalt type.
Temperature control is a critical objective on every hot asphalt roofing project. Excessive heating can cause
degradation of the asphalt, significantly increase worker exposure to fumes, and create kettle fire and explosion
hazards. Asphalt should always be used at the lowest practicable temperature given the specific application.
The proper temperature for BURA application is the equiviscous temperature (EVT), plus or minus 25°F. On a job the
EVT is measured in the mop cart, bucket, or mechanical spreader just prior to application to the substrate. ASTM
D312 requires lot-specific EVTs for both mop and mechanical spreader application to be indicated on each carton of
asphalt or bill of lading. Application temperature at the point of ply felt contact may also be impacted by ambient
conditions but should not deviate from the EVT by more than 25°F. ASTM D312 specifies maximum EVTs for Type III
and IV BURA to help prevent overheating. In the case of modified bitumen systems applied using hot asphalt, consult
manufacturer recommendations on proper application temperatures.
ASTM D312 specifies a maximum kettle temperature of 550°F (288°C). Kettle temperatures should be kept as far
below this maximum temperature as possible, while maintaining a temperature within the EVT range at the point of
application. Some recommendations to help minimize heat loss between the kettle and the roof include the
Regarding Built-Up
Roofing Asphalt
2 of 2 Amember service provided by the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association Revised May 2016
 Minimize the distance between the kettle or tanker and the point of application on the roof
 Use insulated kettles with capacities appropriate to the job and with high pumping rates to deliver the
hot material as quickly as possible
 Insulate the hot pipe and use insulated rooftop containers (luggers, reservoirs on mechanical
applicators, mop carts, buckets)
 Keep the lids of rooftop containers closed except when necessary to fill them
 For additional information and guidance, contact ARMA
The ASTM D312 maximum kettle temperature of 550°F (288°C) is critically linked to the minimum flashpoint of 575°F
(302°C) specified in the standard. When using BURA reporting flashpoints below 575°F (302°C) (for example, under
the CSA standard, asphalts may have flashpoints as low as 518°F (270°C)), the kettle temperature must remain at
least 25°F below the flashpoint at all times. Additionally, it is good practice to limit the heating and storage of
asphalts at 500°F (260°C) or higher to less than 4 hours. All temperatures should be measured with properly
maintained and calibrated devices once the asphalt and kettle have reached a steady state temperature and the
asphalt has been skimmed if needed. If a thermocouple or thermometer is used, it should be inserted into the
asphalt until a constant temperature is achieved. If an infrared gun is used, follow the equipment instructions for
distance and point it at a freshly disrupted asphalt surface to get the best possible reading.
All practical measures to reduce worker exposures to asphalt fumes should be used on every BURA job. In addition
to good temperature management practices as discussed above, a number of work practices, equipment controls,
and innovative products are available. Information on these exposure control measures is available from ARMA.
Follow manufacturer recommendations for storage of packaged and bulk asphalt. Prior to use, cartons should be
stored in a way that protects them from weather, debris, and sunlight, and that prevents cold flow of the asphalt
from fallen cartons or excessive material stacking. Asphalt kegs should be stored in an upright position, single or
double stacked, and protected from moisture and adverse weather conditions that could degrade the packaging or
product. Application will be affected by surface and air temperature, wind conditions, as well as other
environmental factors. For interplay mopping and flood coating, follow the directions of the roofing manufacturer. Read more

Asphalt shingles have been used successfully in various climate zones around the world, including desert and tropical
regions, for over one hundred years. Improved application efficiency and, more importantly, enhanced long-term
shingle performance can be achieved by following the recommendations outlined below for hot weather storage
and application.
Storage Prior to Use
Always follow the manufacturer’s precautions about stacking bundles and pallets; stacking bundles too high or
double-stacking pallets can indent or deform the shingles over time, particularly in warm weather or when shingles
are exposed to direct sunlight. As a general rule in hot weather, store shingles in a cool dry place in stacks no more
than four feet high. If higher stacking is necessary, it is recommended to use racks or bins so that the weight of the
bundles on the upper pallets does not bear down on the bundles below. Systematically rotate all stock so that the
material that has been stored the longest will be the first to be moved out (i.e. first in, first out).
Although asphalt shingles are designed to withstand direct exposure to the hot summer sun after installation, it is
best not to store the products in direct sunlight prior to installation. Storage in direct sunlight may also cause a
weathering and weakening of the packaging materials, making it awkward to handle the bundles prior to installation.
Removing Shingles from Bundles
Although shingles have a release film to prevent them from sticking to each other in the package, direct sun can
cause the sealant to become more aggressive, making the shingles more difficult to separate and remove from the
bundle. When removing shingles from a warm bundle, follow the manufacturer’s recommendations; some products
may separate better or more easily when removed from the bundle “granule side up” or by quickly snapping the
shingles out of the bundle stack. This helps break the weak bond which may have formed between shingle sealant
and release films, allowing easier separation and minimizing potential shingle damage.
Placement of Shingles on Roof Prior to Installation
Shingles should be kept in bundles or handled in pairs and stacked squarely to maintain shingle sealant alignment
with the release tape until applied. Asphalt shingles become more flexible in hot weather, so avoid rough handling
that may tear the shingles or break the laminating adhesive bond on multi-layer shingles.
Keep bundles as flat as possible during the roof loading process and on the roof.
Do not drape shingles or bundles over the hips or ridges; keep shingles in their packaging until ready to be applied.
During Application
Always be careful when working on sloped roofs. In hot weather applications, the asphalt coating on the shingles will
Recommendations for
Storage and Application
of Asphalt Roofing
Shingles in Hot Weather
soften. Wear soft-soled footwear to minimize foot slippage possibilities and scuffing of the shingles. On steeper
roofs where worker footprints, such as toe or heel marks, are likely to be more concentrated in small areas., use
reasonable care to minimize scuffing and, if necessary, wait until the shingles and ambient temperatures cool.
Ensure roof safety by following all required safety precautions; such precautions should include use of fall protection
For comfort reasons as well as the safety reasons noted above, on forecasted hot and sunny days it is advisable to
install shingles early in the day before the temperature reaches its maximum. One should also plan the roof
installation to “work around the sun,” i.e. work on the west – and south-facing slopes in the morning and the eastand north-facing slopes later in the day.
In hot weather, shingle pieces trimmed for hips, ridges, rakes, and valleys can quickly adhere to shingles that are
already applied if left on the roof with their sealant strip down. Use good housekeeping practices to minimize shingle
debris on the roof.
Other Considerations
Most asphalt shingles are manufactured with a thermally activated asphaltic sealant which bonds the shingles
together once they are applied to the roof and exposed to a sufficient period of heat from sunlight. If this sealant has
been affected (blinded) by wind-blown dust from the surrounding environment or the job site (e.g. saw dust), the
sealant may not activate even on hot sunny days and the shingles will need to be manually sealed per the shingle
manufacturer’s instructions. On north-facing or steeper slopes the shingles may not seal immediately even in
warmer weather and may require manual sealing as well.
If repairs or other rooftop work is required during hot, sunny weather on existing shingled roofs, the shingles will be
susceptible to the same scuffing and possible damage noted above. Because the shingle sealant bond on existing
roofs is likely to be fully formed , their removal or repair will be difficult to perform without causing shingle tearing
and damage at the sealant interface. In such cases it may be best to wait until the shingles are cooler before
attempting shingle repair. If waiting is not feasible, lightly spraying the shingle surface with a water mist will cool the
shingle surface and may facilitate sealant bond separation. Caution: A wet roof surface can be slippery, so take
appropriate precautions.

Snow and ice accumulation on steep-slope roofs can lead to ice dams at the roof eaves. Ice dams are
typically formed by the repeated thawing and freezing of melting snow or backing up of frozen slush in
gutters. When ice dams occur, water can be forced under the roofing materials and may cause damage
to a home’s ceilings, walls and insulation, and long-term damage to structural components.
The installation of an ice dam protection layer along eaves is recommended to protect against leakage
from ice dams. Per the International Building Code and the International Residential Code (IBC and IRC),
in areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice
barrier shall be installed. The International Residential Code (IRC) refers back to the local authority
having jurisdiction. There are two methods of creating an ice dam protection layer. The installation of a
polymer modified bitumen self-adhering underlayment that complies with ASTM D1970 (one layer) is one
approach, as recognized by the current version of the IRC. It is ARMA’s recommendation that the product
should be extended a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) inside the interior wall line of the building. There
are some jurisdictions that will require eave protection to extend further up the roof slope, and other
jurisdictions that will call for less. In all cases, apply per the roofing manufacturer’s installation
instruction and your local building code.
As an alternative, use two layers of asphalt saturated felt as the ice dam protection. Thoroughly adhere
the felts to each other with a continuous bed of plastic cement from eaves to a point at least 24 in.
inside the interior wall line of the building. Begin by applying the felt in a 19 in. (483 mm) wide strip
along the eaves, overhanging the drip edge by ¼ to ¾ in. (7 to 19 mm). Place a full 36 in. (900 mm) wide
sheet over the 19 in. (483 mm) wide starter piece, completely overlapping it. All succeeding courses will
be positioned to overlap the preceding course by 19 in. Refer to the roofing manufacturer’s installation
instruction and the local building code for any additional requirements.


Buckling is the result of asphalt shingles not lying flat due to wrinkling of the roofing underlayment or movement of
the wood deck.
• Exposure of the wood roof deck during new construction or roof replacement can lead to moisture
absorption into the wood. As the wood increases in moisture content, movement of the decking can occur.
• As a new roof is installed, moisture can be trapped in the system and the roofing underlayment can absorb
moisture and wrinkle.
• Inadequate ventilation of the attic space, which restricts free-flow of air directly beneath the roof deck, can
create problems with moisture and temperature management in the attic space that can contribute to
movement of the wood deck. See individual manufacturer recommendations for ventilation requirements.
• Roof decking that is not spaced a minimum of 1/8” can cause buckling due to expansion.
• Allow moisture to escape the roofing system. Once the roofing system reaches the proper moisture content,
the roof should lie flat and the buckling problem should not return.
• Remove the shingles that are affected, and where the felt is wrinkled, repair the wrinkles by cutting and renailing the felt so that it is flat, and then replace the shingles.
• Ensure that the attic is properly ventilated according to the latest version of the building code. Proper
ventilation includes free-flow of air directly beneath the roof deck, from the eaves to the ridge.
• Use only wood decking materials acceptable to the roofing manufacturer that have been properly
conditioned. Refer to detailed recommendations found in the “How to Minimize Buckling of Asphalt
Shingles” published by APA – The Engineered Wood Association.
• Do not expose decking materials to liquid water either before or after application.
• Cover wood deck materials with asphalt-saturated felt shingle underlayment (ASTM D 226, ASTM D 4869,
ASTM D 6757 or CSA A123.3), then apply shingles as soon as possible.
• Ensure adequate attic ventilation (e.g., a minimum of one square foot net free area per 150 square feet of
attic floor space). See individual manufacturer recommendations for additional ventilation requirements.
• Apply shingles in accordance with shingle manufacturers’ recommendations.
• Ventilate the attic space to eliminate excess moisture. In some circumstances, the addition of mechanical
exhaust fans may be necessary.
• When buckling persists, remove and replace the affected underlayment and shingles.

The International Building Code (IBC) and the International Residential Building Code (IRC) require that roofing nails
be utilized to fasten asphalt shingles. Proper nailing is essential to good performance. To ensure proper nailing
during shingle application it is required that you follow the IBC and IRC nail requirement guidelines. The Asphalt
Roofing Manufactures Association (ARMA) supports these requirements, (several of them referenced below) as well
as additional installation recommendations outlined below.
 Nails are required to have a minimum nominal shank diameter of 12 gauge (0.105”) and a minimum head
diameter of 3/8”.
 Nails should be corrosion resistant. Nails are required to be galvanized, steel, stainless steel, aluminum or
copper roofing nails. Galvanizing by various processes is the typical means of achieving corrosion resistance.
Aluminum roofing nails do not require additional coatings for corrosion resistance.
 Select nails long enough to penetrate ¾” into the roof deck. If the deck sheathing is less than ¾” thick, use
nails long enough to penetrate the roof deck sheathing and extend at least 1/8” beyond the lower side of
the roof deck. In determining nail length, consider the number of layers of shingles, shingle thickness(es),
underlayment and flashing (eaves, sidewall and valley, etc.).
o In some cases, the underside of the deck is exposed to view. In this case, using nails of the
recommended length will result in the nail points penetrating through the deck and being exposed
to view. Consult the roofing material manufacturer and building code requirements for approved
alternatives if visible nail points are considered aesthetically objectionable.
 All nails are to be driven by hand or with a pneumatic nailing tool that has been properly adjusted to
correctly drive the nails. Failure to use a properly adjusted pneumatic air system can lead to sealing failures,
raised tabs, buckling, and blow-offs.
 For most asphalt shingles, a minimum of four nails is required. For some shingles and for some application
circumstances, the required number of nails may be different. The specific recommendations of the shingle
manufacturer, as printed on each shingle wrapper, must be followed to ensure the intended performance
and compliance to building codes.
Placing and Driving Nails
Improperly positioned and driven nails can lead to sealing failures, blow-offs, raised tabs, and buckling. The following
practices reflect the general recommendations of most shingle manufacturers. However, the recommendations of
the specific shingle manufacturer, as printed on each shingle wrapper, must be followed when applying shingles.
Align each shingle carefully. Make sure the cutouts or end joints are more than 2” from any nail or end joint in the
underlying course. Start nailing from the end nearest the previously-installed shingle and proceed across. This will
help prevent buckling. To help prevent distortion, do not attempt to realign a shingle by shifting the free end after
more than one nail is in place.
Critical aspects of nail placement include:
 Never place nails where they will be fully or partially visible after the roof is complete.
 For most shingles with sealant on the top surface, place nails below the sealant strip but above the area that
will be visible after the roof is complete.
 Shingles with sealant on the back surface often have a line or lines to indicate the location on the shingle
surface where the nails are to be placed.
Nail Application of
Asphalt Strip Shingles
for New and Recover
2 of 2 A member service provided by the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association Revised 5.16.2018
 No nail head should be closer than 1″ from either end of the shingle. Specific recommendations from the
shingle manufacturer for positioning the nails across the shingle are included in the manufacturer’s
installation instructions.
 Do not drive nails into knot holes, cracks or spaces in the roof deck.
 Nails are to be applied so that the entire head bears tightly against the shingle.
Nails are not to be underdriven, overdriven (to break or cut into the shingle) or driven crooked. See Figure 1 for
examples of properly and improperly driven nails.
Repair incorrectly applied nails immediately. Underdriven nails can be tapped down. Remove overdriven or crooked
nails, repair the hole with asphalt roof cement complying with ASTM D4586, and place another nail nearby. If this is
not practical, replace the entire shingle.

Ponding water is defined as water, which remains on a roof 48 hours or longer. It may result from rain, melting snow/ice or
runoff from rooftop equipment. The Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association is joined by many reputable organizations, such
as the National Roofing Contractors Association, the Midwest Roofing Contractors Association, the American Institute of
Architects, and the International Institute of Building Enclosure Consultants in recommending that roof designs provide
adequate slope (usually min. ¼” per foot) to ensure that the roof drains freely throughout the life of the building, thereby
lessening the potential adverse effects of ponding water.
If not addressed, ponding water may result in significant consequences including but not limited to:
 Deflection/Deformation: As water accumulates in ponding areas, the load on the roof increases, and may result in deck
deflection. The potential for deck deflection increases with the capacity of the area to hold water thereby increasing
the potential risk to the structural integrity of the deck.
 Ice Damage: Ice formations develop and move constantly with changes in temperature. This movement may “scrub”
the roof membrane to an extent that physical damage to the membrane may occur.
 Biological Growth: When water stands for long periods of time, it promotes biological growth, such as algae and
vegetation. Damage to the roof membrane may occur from chemical and physical attack from the bio-growth as well
as the expansion and contraction of the bio-growth during wet and dry cycles. Additionally, vegetation and other
debris may clog drains and cause additional ponding.
 Dirt/Debris Accumulation: Accumulation of dirt and debris may support biological growth. If a ponding area dries, the
accumulated dirt and debris may contract during dehydration (resulting possibly in “alligator cracking”) and pull at the
surface of the membrane.
 Water Infiltration: If roof membrane integrity is compromised, the risk of water infiltration into the building and
subsequent interior damage is amplified.
Best practices to avoid ponding water are as follows:
 A roof’s structural frame or deck should be sloped, and drainage components such as roof drains and scuppers should
be included.
 Regular maintenance to ensure drains remain unobstructed so that ponding water does not occur due to clogged
drainage systems.
 If a deck does not provide the necessary slope to drain, a tapered insulation system may be used to create positive roof
 Crickets installed upslope of rooftop equipment and saddles positioned along a low-point between drains, may help
minimize localized ponding in conjunction with a tapered insulation system.
 Rooftop HVAC condensate lines should be connected to proper drains to prevent condensate from draining onto the
If ponding water does occur, efforts should be taken to eliminate or reduce the accumulation and persistence of water on the
Effects of Ponding Water
on Low Slope
Roof Systems
2 of 2 A member service provided by the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association Revised August 2019
roof surface. Failing to address ponding water may shorten the effective life of the roof membrane system.
To obtain specific information regarding the effects of ponding water on particular products and systems, contact the individual
roofing material manufacturer.

What is asphalt shingle recycling?
It is becoming increasingly common for shingles to be recycled instead of going to a landfill.
Shingle recycling is the process of taking asphalt shingles from roof tear-offs and reusing them
in other products, ensuring the material does not end up in landfill.
What are the benefits of asphalt shingle recycling?
Shingle recycling is economically viable, convenient where available, and saves valuable
resources from being sent to a landfill. Recycled asphalt shingles have most commonly been
used in pavement, which offsets the need for new asphalt and aggregate, and additional uses
are being explored. Some manufacturers have developed or are developing processes to
produce asphalt roofing shingles containing recycled materials from post-consumer and postmanufacture waste shingles, thereby creating a potential circular economy for asphalt roofing
shingles. Asphalt shingle recycling can create jobs for recycling locations, reduce costs for
paving, and allow homeowners to make a positive environmental contribution.
In what products are recycled asphalt shingles used?
The primary use of recycled shingles is to make roads, typically by adding pulverized shingles to
the other asphalt used in pavement. In many cases, this may actually improve the pavement
quality. Recycled shingles can also be used as an input to make roofing products or road
maintenance products, or to produce energy.
How many asphalt shingles are recycled in roads?
One of the best estimates of asphalt shingle recycling into roads is developed by the National
Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA), whose annual survey of asphalt mixture producers and
state asphalt pavement associations estimates the use of reclaimed asphalt shingles (RAS) into
asphalt pavement. Using information from the 2020 NAPA survey,1 ARMA estimates an
equivalent of approximately 234,000 residential roofs were recycled into asphalt pavement.2
What other options are available for recycling asphalt roofing besides using asphalt shingles
in pavement?
In addition to use in pavement, asphalt roofing products can be used as:
• an ingredient in cold patch formulations used for pothole repair,
• an additive in manufacture of new asphalt shingles, underlayments, and roll roofing
• aggregate for the base layer in road construction,

• a component in the production of roof pavers,
• a dust and erosion control agent for rural roads and construction sites,
• and a fuel supplement in incinerators for energy generation.
Which states allow recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) into their pavement? Where is this
practice most prevalent?
The National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) annual survey of asphalt mixture producers
and state asphalt pavement associations provides information about recycled asphalt shingle
use in each state. In their 2020 survey,1 RAS usage was reported in twenty-four states. RAS
usage has been reported every year from 2010 through 2020 in each of the following states:
California, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina,
Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. In the 2020 survey, the top ten
states with highest estimated RAS usage are Texas, North Carolina, Massachusetts, Illinois,
Wisconsin, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Kentucky, and Arkansas.
How can I find an asphalt shingle recycler nearby?
Shingle recycling is available in most major markets in the United States and in some locations
in Canada, and new sites continue to open. There are multiple resources for finding a recycler,
including online at and, or by calling 1-800-
CLEANUP. You can also use local resources for finding businesses or conduct an internet search.
No matter which method is used to find a recycler, contact them directly to confirm their
current capability to accept and process shingles for recycling.
Is every asphalt shingle recycler listed on or
No! If you know of a location that is not listed, please let or
know by emailing or
What if I can’t find an asphalt shingle recycler nearby?
Send an email to or visit Earth911 Recycling Search.
Do roofing contractors or do-it-yourselfers have to separate material as it is removed from
the roof?
Call ahead to your recycler to determine what your recycler allows. Each recycler has specific
rules regarding requirements for separating shingles from other materials. It is good practice to
keep shingles separate from other construction debris, such as wood or metal or other
disposed materials.
What about nails?
You do not have to pull out nails — most recyclers use powerful magnets on the shingle grinder to separate nails from shingles and then recycle the nails as well. Confirm with your local
recycler on its capabilities and requirements for accepting shingles for recycling.
How much does recycling cost?
Recycling costs vary. It is typically cheaper than landfilling and might even become less
expensive if materials are separated properly.
I do not want a large roll-off container in my yard. Will recyclers work with dump trailers?
Many recyclers are flexible, and options can be determined by calling to ask.
Should I bring up recycling with my contractor?
Many roofing contractors will market their past success in recycling shingles. Regardless, any
roofing contractor should be open to the conversation and should confirm the ability and
logistics for recycling the shingles involved in your project
Williams, Brett A., J. Richard Willis, and Joseph Shacat (National Asphalt Pavement Association,
Greenbelt, MD), “Asphalt Pavement Industry Survey on Recycled Materials and Warm-Mix Asphalt
Usage: 2020,” December 2021.
Estimate is based on assumption the shingles disposed during a typical single-layer roof replacement
project weigh 2.5 pounds per square foot of roof area, and the average size of a typical roof is 2000
square feet.

Self-adhesive (SA) modified bituminous membranes provide an effective finished roof when properly
installed. These systems combine the long-term, proven performance of modified bitumen sheet
materials with installation advantages imparted by a self-adhesive bituminous layer.
Product Description, Manufacturing Process and Governing Standards
Self-adhesive modified bituminous membranes are comprised of asphalt, polymers, and tackifiers, and
may contain mineral stabilizers. The products may be reinforced with fiberglass, polyester, or a
combination of the two. Products designed for exposure to the elements are typically surfaced with
mineral granules, coatings, films, or other opaque surfacing. The self-adhesive layer is protected with a
release film or paper, which is removed during installation.
Labor saving application without the added complications of torching, mopping, or liquid adhesives is
one of the primary advantages of self-adhesive membranes. Because there are no kettles or torches
required, installation of self-adhesive membranes may be less disruptive to building occupants.
Many self–adhesive modified bituminous membranes are evaluated using test methods in ASTM
D5147, as are other modified bituminous sheet materials, and may meet the physical properties of
asphalt base sheets or modified bitumen sheet material standards such as ASTM D4601, ASTM D1970,
ASTM D6162, ASTM D6163, ASTM D6164, and CSA A123.23.
Product Storage Prior to Use
Self-adhesive modified bituminous membranes are generally packaged and stored in cardboard boxes or
they are protected with opaque wrapping. Unprotected self-adhesive products should not be stored in
direct sunlight since exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays may affect the adhesive properties, especially on
the outer convolutions of the roll, or cause “dog-legging” of the roll. Storage for extended periods or
under extreme conditions can alter the adhesion properties of the self-adhesive bitumen or affect roll
The following items should be considered when installing a self-adhesive membrane system.
 Always consult manufacturer’s application recommendations before specifying or installing a
particular product.
 At the time of installation, the air, product, and substrate temperatures should be at or above
the minimum application temperature recommended by the manufacturer. While the typical
minimum temperature range for application is 40-50°F, consult the specific manufacturer for
recommendations for material storage and handling during colder weather application. Selfadhesive products should only be applied to an acceptable substrate, as specified by the
product manufacturer. The substrate must be free of dust, dirt, oils, moisture or debris that
could interfere with proper adhesion.
 Manufacturers may require the substrate be primed prior to membrane application to aid
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adhesion of self- adhesive membranes. Primers are applied by brush, roller, or spray. Check
with the manufacturer to determine requirements for primer type, application rate, and drying
time. Solvent-based primers may damage the self-adhered membrane and roof system if the
solvent had not evaporated fully before the installation of the roof system.
 Unlike other installation methods for modified bitumen membranes, there is no liquid
bituminous layer to fill all the surface irregularities. Consequently, proper application is
essential, especially at all overlaps and T- joints. Applying pressure to the sheet with a heavy
roller is typically required. End laps on mineral-surfaced self-adhesive sheets may need to be
heat welded or sealed with compatible roofing mastics as specified by the manufacturer. If
using solvent-based mastic, following manufacturer recommended application rates and other
precautions to prevent solvent-induced damage to the membrane.
Where different grades of self-adhesive products and/or primers are available for cold weather
application refer to the manufacturer’s written instructions for guidance on proper product selection.
For more information, please consult the ARMA Modified Bitumen Design Guide for Building Owners.
The Design Guide addresses relevant aspects, issues and concerns of modified bituminous roofing
systems and their associated components, substrates, construction techniques and innovative uses.

Roof membrane systems are intended to provide protection from natural elements, such as rain, snow,
hail, and sleet. Systems that are properly designed, installed, and maintained should provide the user
with long-term satisfactory protection from these elements. Some roof membrane systems, such as
those installed on certain factories, restaurants, and other buildings with a high probability for unusual
levels of contamination, require special care in design. The presence of greases, oils, bacteria, and/or
other agents on the roof surface that may adversely affect the integrity of the roof membrane should be
taken into consideration. The specifier should select the type of roof membrane system that will best
satisfy the performance requirements based upon the number, type, and expected quantity of
contaminants present. This document is intended to aid the specifier by highlighting the effects that
various contaminants, if not considered in the design phase, may have on polymer modified bitumen
Effects of Oils and Greases
Modified bitumen roof membranes may be adversely affected by exposure to cooking oils (animal or
vegetable) and greases. Unprotected membrane may experience degradation around exhaust vents,
where the roof membrane has repeated contact with these contaminants. The organic substances
contained within oils and greases may weaken and eventually break down the polymer-bitumen
network, causing premature failure of the roof.
Petroleum-derived products, such as greases that leak from rooftop equipment, or hydrocarbons such
as gasoline, paint thinners and kerosene spilled during maintenance operations, may likewise cause
degradation of the roof. Due to the relatively fast evaporation rate of many hydrocarbon materials, any
detrimental effects caused by a one-time contamination may be shorter term and less severe in nature
than those caused by greases or recurring spills. Always report such contamination incidents to the
membrane manufacturer for guidance.
Effects of Bacteria and Fungi
Factories producing foods such as potato pulp and dry milk have reported cases of modified bitumen
membrane deterioration due to bacteria and/or other causes. These conditions may result in “mud
cracking,” which may ultimately lead to damage of the modified bitumen membrane. Excessive bird
droppings may also cause degradation of the roof membrane due to a combination of solids build-up
and subsequent “mud cracking,” bacteria, and the acidity of the droppings. The degree of degradation is
dependent upon the type of microorganism, temperature and other conditions. While certain roof
coatings can alleviate the effects of surface contaminants, the type and quality best suited for the
specific rooftop conditions, should be addressed with the membrane manufacturer.
Fungus growth, which typically occurs in hot, humid regions, does not cause the same detrimental
effects as “mud cracking” and bacterial attack and usually poses only aesthetic concerns.
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Effects of Other Chemicals
Other chemicals, such as solvents, acids, bases and oxidizing agents, may cause varying degrees of harm
to polymer-modified bitumen roof membranes, such as swelling, softening (reducing resistance to foot
traffic), and slumping of the bitumen compound of the membrane. Many modified bitumen sheet
materials may be applied using solvent-based cold process adhesives, and care should be taken to
ensure that the adhesive is approved for use by the membrane manufacturer and that the application
guidelines for adhesive quantity and flash-off (curing) are followed. Contact the roof membrane
manufacturer to obtain additional information regarding the effects of adhesives, chemicals, and
contaminants on modified bitumen sheet materials.
 Wherever possible, reduce or eliminate exposure of roofing components to contaminants.
 Determine the types and concentrations of contaminants that may be present on the roof. When
re-roofing, investigate what effects, if any, contaminants have had on the existing roof before
specifying and applying a new roofing system.
 Use commercially available traps and/or filters designed to capture contaminants exhausted from
rooftop equipment.
 Establish a roof maintenance program to monitor affected roof sections and to properly maintain
traps or filters.
 Provide positive drainage (at least 1/4” per foot roof slope) to prevent ponding in the affected
 If contaminant effects are minor, increase the number of plies and/or add resistant coatings to
provide adequate protection.
 Consider the use of properly specified roof coatings on roof areas where the roof membrane will
be exposed to contaminants.
 Investigate alternate venting designs that minimize or eliminate contamination of the roofing